Publications & Reports

Biomarkers of immune dysfunction following combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection.

Lichtfuss GF, Hoy J, Rajasuriar R, Kramski M, Crowe SM, Lewin SR
Centre for Virology, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia.


Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients, yet their life expectancy remains reduced compared with the general population. Most HIV-infected patients receiving cART have some persistent immune dysfunction characterized by chronic immune activation and premature aging of the immune system. Here we review biomarkers of T-cell activation (CD69, -25 and -38, HLA-DR, and soluble CD26 and -30); generalized immune activation (C-reactive protein, IL-6 and D-dimer); microbial translocation (lipopolysaccharide, 16S rDNA, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and soluble CD14); and immune dysfunction of specific cellular subsets (T cells, natural killer cells and monocytes) in HIV-infected patients on cART and their relationship to adverse clinical outcomes including impaired CD4 T-cell recovery, as well as non-AIDS clinical events, such as cardiovascular disease.


  • Journal: Biomarkers in Medicine
  • Published: 01/04/2011
  • Volume: 5
  • Issue: 2
  • Pagination: 171-186

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