Publications & Reports

Mass population displacement. A global public health challenge.

M J Toole
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.


Since the end of the Cold War, there has been a dramatic increase in civil conflicts resulting in approximately 50 million refugees and internally displaced civilians.

The public health impact of these situations has been immense, comprising high rates of communicable diseases, elevated prevalence of acute malnutrition, and high excess mortality rates.

The prevention of these adverse public health effects includes early warning and intervention; prompt supply of adequate food, water, and sanitation; measles immunization; effective management of epidemic communicable diseases; and simple and timely information systems.


  • Journal: Infectious disease clinics of North America
  • Published: 01/06/1995
  • Volume: 9
  • Issue: 2
  • Pagination: 353-366