Publications & Reports

Insecticide resistance in malaria and arbovirus vectors in Papua New Guinea, 2017-2022.

Katusele M, Lagur S, Endersby-Harshman N, Demok S, Goi J, Vincent N, Sakur M, Dau A, Kilepak L, Gideon S, Pombreaw C, Makita L, Hoffmann A, Robinson LJ, Laman M, Karl S
PNG Institute of Medical Research, Madang, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea.


BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance (IR) monitoring is essential for evidence-based control of mosquito-borne diseases. While widespread pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles and Aedes species has been described in many countries, data for Papua New Guinea (PNG) are limited. Available data indicate that the local Anopheles populations in PNG remain pyrethroid-susceptible, making regular IR monitoring even more important. In addition, Aedes aegypti pyrethroid resistance has been described in PNG. Here, Anopheles and Aedes IR monitoring data generated from across PNG between 2017 and 2022 are presented. METHODS: Mosquito larvae were collected in larval habitat surveys and through ovitraps. Mosquitoes were reared to adults and tested using standard WHO susceptibility bioassays. DNA from a subset of Aedes mosquitoes was sequenced to analyse the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) region for any resistance-related mutations. RESULTS: Approximately 20,000 adult female mosquitoes from nine PNG provinces were tested. Anopheles punctulatus sensu lato mosquitoes were susceptible to pyrethroids but there were signs of reduced mortality in some areas. Some Anopheles populations were also resistant to DDT. Tests also showed that Aedes. aegypti in PNG are resistant to pyrethroids and DDT and that there was also likelihood of bendiocarb resistance. A range of Vssc resistance mutations were identified. Aedes albopictus were DDT resistant and were likely developing pyrethroid resistance, given a low frequency of Vssc mutations was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is highly pyrethroid resistant and also shows signs of resistance against carbamates in PNG. Anopheles punctulatus s.l. and Ae. albopictus populations exhibit low levels of resistance against pyrethroids and DDT in some areas. Pyrethroid-only bed nets are currently the only programmatic vector control tool used in PNG. It is important to continue to monitor IR in PNG and develop proactive insecticide resistance management strategies in primary disease vectors to retain pyrethroid susceptibility especially in the malaria vectors for as long as possible.

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  • Journal: Parasites & Vectors
  • Published: 14/11/2022
  • Volume: 15
  • Issue: 1
  • Pagination: 426