Publications & Reports

Application of Proteomics to the Study of the Therapeutics and Pathogenicity of Giardia duodenalis.

Ahmad Fudail Eiyad Aziz, Norhamizah Roshidi, Nurulhasanah Othman, Khayriyyah Mohd Hanafiah, Norsyahida Arifin
Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor 11800, Penang, Malaysia.


Giardia duodenalis remains a neglected tropical disease. A key feature of the sustained transmission of Giardia is the ability to form environmentally resistant cysts. For the last 38 years, proteomics has been utilised to study various aspects of the parasite across different life cycle stages. Thirty-one articles have been published in PubMed from 2012 to 2022 related to the proteomics of G. duodenalis. Currently, mass spectrometry with LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF has been commonly utilised in proteomic analyses of Giardia, which enables researchers to determine potential candidates for diagnostic biomarkers as well as vaccine and drug targets, in addition to allowing them to investigate the virulence of giardiasis, the pathogenicity mechanisms of G. duodenalis, and the post-translational modifications of Giardia proteins throughout encystation. Over the last decade, valuable information from proteomics analyses of G. duodenalis has been discovered in terms of the pathogenesis and virulence of Giardia, which may provide guidance for the development of better means with which to prevent and reduce the impacts of giardiasis. Nonetheless, there is room for improving proteomics analyses of G. duodenalis, since genomic sequences for additional assemblages of Giardia have uncovered previously unknown proteins associated with the Giardia proteome. Therefore, this paper aims to review the applications of proteomics for the characterisation of G. duodenalis pathogenicity and the discovery of novel vaccine as well as drug targets, in addition to proposing some general directions for future Giardia proteomic research.

Link to publisher’s web site


  • Journal: Diagnostics
  • Published: 09/11/2022
  • Volume: 12
  • Issue: 11