Picornavirus RNA replication requires the formation of replication complexes (RCs) consisting of virus-induced vesicles associated with viral nonstructural proteins and RNA.
Brefeldin A (BFA) has been shown to strongly inhibit RNA replication of poliovirus but not of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). Here, we demonstrate that the replication of parechovirus 1 (ParV1) is partly resistant to BFA, whereas echovirus 11 (EV11) replication is strongly inhibited.
Since BFA inhibits COPI-dependent steps in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi transport, we tested a hypothesis that different picornaviruses may have differential requirements for COPI in the formation of their RCs.
Using immunofluorescence and cryo-immunoelectron microscopy we examined the association of a COPI component, beta-COP, with the RCs of EMCV, ParV1, and EV11. EMCV RCs did not contain beta-COP.
In contrast, beta-COP appeared to be specifically distributed to the RCs of EV11. In ParV1-infected cells beta-COP was largely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm, with some being present in the RCs.
These results suggest that there are differences in the involvement of COPI in the formation of the RCs of various picornaviruses, corresponding to their differential sensitivity to BFA. EMCV RCs are likely to be formed immediately after vesicle budding from the ER, prior to COPI association with membranes.
ParV1 RCs are formed from COPI-containing membranes but COPI is unlikely to be directly involved in their formation, whereas formation of EV11 RCs appears to be dependent on COPI association with membranes.