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Setting: Mendi Provincial Hospital, Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG). Background: PNG is a high burden country for tuberculosis (TB) and TB-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). TB is the second most common cause of death in PNG. Objective: To identify the number of adult inpatients with TB who died between 1 January 2015 and 30 August 2017; describe these patients’ characteristics and identify contributing factors that could be modified. Design: This was a retrospective case series review. Results: Among 905 inpatients with TB during the study period, there were 90 deaths. The patients who died were older than those who survived (median age 40 years vs. 32 years, P = 0.011). The majority of patients who died lived less than 3 hours from the hospital (71%), were diagnosed after admission (79%) and were clinically diagnosed (77%). HIV status was not known in 50% of the deaths. Of patients with a known status, 27% (12/45) were HIV-positive. The median symptom duration prior to presentation was 28 days, with females presenting later than males (84 vs. 28 days, P = 0.008). Conclusion: This study highlights areas where community and hospital-based management of TB could be improved to potentially reduce TB mortality, including earlier detection and treatment, improved bacteriological diagnosis and increased HIV testing.