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We conducted a pilot open-label randomised controlled trial of combined (oestrogen-progesterone) oral contraceptive pill (COCP)-exposure aimed to examine its effect on BV-recurrence following first-line antibiotics compared to antibiotics alone. Ninety-five women with symptomatic BV were prescribed antibiotic therapy, randomised to COCP-exposure (intervention) or current non-hormonal contraceptive practices (control) and followed monthly for six-months or until BV-recurrence. Modified intention-to-treat methods requiring either >/=1 clinical (primary/Amsel-outcome) or >/=1 microbiological (secondary/Nugent-outcome) BV-recurrence assessment were applied to determine cumulative recurrence rates. Secondary Cox regression analyses assessed factors associated with recurrence in all women. 92/95 women randomised provided baseline requirements. BV-recurrence rates were similar in women randomised to the COCP (primary/Amsel-outcome: 10/100PY, 95%CI: 6,19/100PY) compared to controls (14/100PY, 95%CI: 9, 21/100PY, p = 0.471). In secondary analyses sex with the same pre-treatment regular sexual partner (RSP; Amsel: Adjusted Hazard Ratio [AHR] = 3.13, 95%CI: 1.41, 6.94, p = 0.005; Nugent: AHR = 2.97, 95%CI: 1.49, 5.83, p = 0.002) and BV-history (Amsel: AHR = 3.03, 95%CI: 1.14, 6.28; Nugent: AHR = 2.78, 95%CI: 1.22, 6.33) were associated with increased BV-recurrence. This pilot RCT of COCP-exposure did not improve BV cure but found sex with an RSP and BV-history were associated with recurrence, although impacted by sample size and attrition. These data indicate reinfection from an untreated RSP and persistence of BV-associated bacteria are integral to the pathogenesis of recurrence and may overwhelm potential beneficial effects of hormonal contraception on the vaginal microbiota.