Background: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a critical driver of the global burden of active TB, and therefore LTBI treatment is key for TB elimination. Treatment regimens for LTBI include self-administered daily isoniazid for 6 (6H) or 9 (9H) months, self-administered daily rifampicin plus isoniazid for 3 months (3RH), self-administered daily rifampicin for 4 months (4R) and weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid for 3 months self-administered (3HP-SAT) or administered by a healthcare worker as directly observed therapy (3HP-DOT). Data on the relative cost-effectiveness of these regimens are needed to assist policymakers and clinicians in selecting an LTBI regimen. Objectives: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of all regimens for treating LTBI. Methods: We developed a Markov model to investigate the cost-effectiveness of 3HP-DOT, 3HP-SAT, 4R, 3RH, 9H and 6H for LTBI treatment in a cohort of 10000 adults with LTBI. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated from a health system perspective over a 20 year time horizon. Results: Compared with no preventive treatment, 3HP-DOT, 3HP-SAT, 4R, 3RH, 9H and 6H prevented 496, 470, 442, 418, 370 and 276 additional cases of active TB per 10000 patients, respectively. All regimens reduced costs and increased QALYs compared with no preventive treatment. 3HP was more cost-effective under DOT than under SAT at a cost of US$27948 per QALY gained. Conclusions: Three months of weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid is more cost-effective than other regimens. Greater recognition of the benefits of short-course regimens can contribute to the scale-up of prevention and achieving the ‘End TB’ targets.
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