Untreated HIV infection is associated with progressive CD4+ T cell depletion, which is generally recovered with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, a significant proportion of cART-treated individuals have poor CD4+ T cell reconstitution. We investigated associations between HIV disease progression and CD4+ T cell glucose transporter-1 (Glut1) expression. We also investigated the association between these variables and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the Glut1 regulatory gene AKT (rs1130214, rs2494732, rs1130233, and rs3730358) and in the Glut1-expressing gene SLC2A1 (rs1385129 and rs841853) and antisense RNA 1 region SLC2A1-AS1 (rs710218). High CD4+Glut1+ T cell percentage is associated with rapid CD4+ T cell decline in HIV-positive treatment-naive individuals and poor T cell recovery in HIV-positive individuals on cART. Evidence suggests that poor CD4+ T cell recovery in treated HIV-positive individuals is linked to the homozygous genotype (GG) associated with SLC2A1 SNP rs1385129 when compared to those with a recessive allele (GA/AA) (odds ratio = 4.67; P = 0.04). Furthermore, poor response to therapy is less likely among Australian participants when compared against American participants (odds ratio: 0.12; P = 0.01) despite there being no difference in prevalence of a specific genotype for any of the SNPs analyzed between nationalities. Finally, CD4+Glut1+ T cell percentage is elevated among those with a homozygous dominant genotype for SNPs rs1385129 (GG) and rs710218 (AA) when compared to those with a recessive allele (GA/AA and AT/TT respectively) (P < 0.04). The heterozygous genotype associated with AKT SNP 1130214 (GT) had a higher CD4+Glut1+ T cell percentage when compared to the dominant homozygous genotype (GG) (P = 0.0068). The frequency of circulating CD4+Glut1+ T cells and the rs1385129 SLC2A1 SNP may predict the rate of HIV disease progression and CD4+ T cell recovery in untreated and treated infection, respectively.
This research was supported by the Australian Center for HIV and Hepatitis Virology Research (ACH2) and a 2010 developmental grant (CNIHR) from the University of Washington Center for AIDS Research (CFAR), an NIH funded program under award number AI027757, which is supported by the following NIH Institutes and Centers (NIAID, NCI, NIMH, NIDA, NICHD, NHLBI, NIA). CP is a recipient of the CNIHR and ACH2 grant. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contribution to this work of the Victorian Operational Infrastructure Support Program received by the Burnet Institute.