Objective: The objective of the study was to profile leukocyte markers modulated during intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment, and to identify markers and immune pathways associated with clinical efficacy of IVIg for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) with potential for monitoring treatment efficacy.
Methods: Response to IVIg treatment in newly diagnosed IVIg-naïve and established IVIg-experienced patients was assessed by changes in expression of inflammatory leukocyte markers by flow cytometry. The adjusted INCAT disability and Medical Research Council sum scores defined clinical response.
Results: Intravenous immunoglobulin modulated immunopathogenic pathways associated with inflammatory disease in CIDP. Leukocyte markers of clinical efficacy included reduced CD185+ follicular helper T cells, increased regulatory markers (CD23 and CD72) on B cells, and reduction in the circulating inflammatory CD16+ myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) population and concomitant increase in CD62L and CD195 defining a less inflammatory lymphoid homing mDC phenotype. A decline in inflammatory CD16+ dendritic cells was associated with clinical improvement or stability, and correlated with magnitude of improvement in neurological assessment scores, but did not predict relapse. IVIg also induced a nonspecific improvement in regulatory and reduced inflammatory markers not associated with clinical response.
Conclusions: Clinically effective IVIg modulated inflammatory and regulatory pathways associated with ongoing control or resolution of CIDP disease. Some of these markers have potential for monitoring outcome.