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The development of an effective immunotherapeutic approach to cancer is now a major focus of research, and despite impressive progress over the last 10 years there are still many hurdles to overcome to elicit an effective immune response which will totally eradicate the cancer. Mucins (MUC1) have attracted interest as potential targets for immunotherapy of cancers of breast, pancreas, ovary and others, and we have demonstrated that mannan, a polymannose carbohydrate is an effective carrier for MUC1 in eliciting a cellular immune response. Several clinical trials are in progress to evaluate the immunogenicity of MUC1 and its suitability as to use for immunotherapy/vaccine for breast cancer.