Publications & Reports

Pharmacy and Self-Report Adherence Measures to Predict Virological Outcomes for Patients on Free Antiretroviral Therapy in Tamil Nadu, India.

McMahon JH, Manoharan A, Wanke CA, Mammen S, Jose H, Malini T, Kadavanu T, Jordan MR, Elliott JH, Lewin SR, Mathai D
Infectious Diseases Unit, Alfred Hospital, Level 2 Burnet Tower, 85 Commercial Road, Melbourne, 3004, Australia, [email protected]


Over 480,000 individuals receive free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India yet data associating ART adherence with HIV viral load for populations exclusively receiving free ART are not available. Additionally estimates of adherence using pharmacy data on ART pick-up are not available for any population in India. After 12-months ART we found self-reported estimates of adherence were not associated with HIV viral load. Individuals with <100 % adherence using pharmacy data predicted HIV viral load, and estimates combining pharmacy data and self-report were also predictive. Pharmacy adherence measures proved a feasible method to estimate adherence in India and appear more predictive of virological outcomes than self-report. Predictive adherence measures identified in this study warrant further investigation in populations receiving free ART in India to allow for identification of individuals at risk of virological failure and in need of adherence support.


  • Journal: AIDS and Behavior
  • Published: 24/02/2013
  • Volume: 17
  • Issue: 6
  • Pagination: 2253-2259


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