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There are a number of machanisms by which HIV-infected macrophages contribute to the pathogenesis of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Macrophage-tropic strains of HIV are present at the time of infection, and persist throughout the course of infection, despite the emergence of T cell tropic quasispecies. As HIV causes chronic infection of macrophages with only minimal cytopathology, these cells can provide an important viral reservoir in HIV-infected persons. Macrophages are more susceptible to HIV infection than freshly isolated monocytes. HIV-infected macrophages can contribute to CD4 T lymphocyte depletion through a gp120-CD4 dependent fusion process with uninfected CD4-expressing T cells. Increasing data support the role of HIV-infected macrophages and microglia in the pathogenesis of HIV-related encephalopathy and AIDS-related dementia through the production of neurotoxins. HIV infection of macrophages in vitro results in impairment of many aspects of their function. Reduced phagocytic capacity for certain opportunistic pathogens, including Toxoplasma gondii and Candida albicans, may be responsible for reactivation of these pathogens in persons with advanced HIV infection, although the mechanisms underlying reactivation of infections and susceptibility to disease from new infections are likely to be multifactorial. Our studies showing defective phagocytosis and killing provide additional information that contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of AIDS. Studies of in vitro efficacy of potential antiretroviral therapies should be performed in both primary lymphocyte and monocyte cultures, given the importance of both of these cell populations to HIV pathogenesis and their differing biology.