Publications & Reports

Oxidative/reductive conjugation of mannan to antigen selects for T1 or T2 immune responses.

Apostolopoulos V, Pietersz GA, Loveland BE, Sandrin MS, McKenzie IF
Austin Research Institute, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.


The induction of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is desirable for immunization against many diseases, and recombinant-synthetic peptide antigens are now favored agents to use. However, a major problem is how to induce CTLs, which requires a T1-type response to such synthetic antigens. We report that T1-type (generating high CTL, low antibody) or T2-type (the reciprocal) responses can be induced by conjugation of the antigen to the carbohydrate polymer mannan: T1 responses are selected by using oxidizing conditions; T2 responses are selected by using reducing conditions for the conjugation. Using human MUC1 as a model antigen in mice, immunization with oxidized mannan-MUC1 fusion protein (ox-M-FP) led to complete tumor protection (challenge up to 5 x 10(7) MUC1+ tumor cells), CTLs, and a high CTL precursor (CTLp) frequency (1/6900), whereas immunization with reduced mannan-MUC1 FP (red-M-FP) led to poor protection after challenge with only 10(6) MUC1+ tumor cells, no CTLs, and a low CTLp frequency (1/87,800). Ox-M-FP selects for a T1 response (mediated here by CD8+ cells) with high interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion, no interleukin 4 (IL-4), and a predominant IgG2a antibody response; red-M-FP selects for a T2-type response with IL-4 production and a high predominant IgG1 antibody response but no IFN-gamma.


  • Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • Published: 24/10/1995
  • Volume: 92
  • Issue: 22
  • Pagination: 10128-10132