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DNA immunization is an attractive form of vaccination, which has shown promising results only in small animal models. There is a need to develop efficient gene delivery systems. We previously demonstrated that oxidized (OM) and reduced mannan (RM) complexed to ovalbumin DNA via poly-l-lysine (PLL), were able to generate potent immune responses in mice. Herein, we further investigated the suitability of OMPLL and RMPLL as carriers for mucin 1 (MUC1) DNA vaccination for cancer immunotherapy. Studies presented here showed that immune responses in C57BL/6 mice induced by OMPLL-MUC1 DNA and RMPLL-MUC1 DNA immunization were more immunogenic compared to MUC1 DNA alone. Moreover, tumor protection was evident at a dose as low as 0.5 microg. In addition, strong T cell responses were induced in HLA-A2 transgenic and human MUC1 transgenic mice. These results demonstrate the potential of OM and RM as efficient non-viral gene delivery carriers for DNA vaccines for use in cancer immunotherapy.