Antibodies with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity play an important role in protection against HIV-1 infection, but generating sufficient amounts of antibodies to study their protective efficacy is difficult. HIV-specific IgG can be easily and inexpensively produced in large quantities using bovine colostrum. We previously vaccinated cows with HIV-1 envelope gp140 and elicited high titers of anti-gp140-binding IgG in colostrum. In the present study, we determined whether bovine antibodies would also demonstrate specific cytotoxic activity. We found that bovine IgG bind to Fcgamma-receptors (FcgammaRs) on human neutrophils, monocytes, and NK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Antibody-dependent killing was observed in the presence of anti-HIV-1 colostrum IgG but not nonimmune colostrum IgG. Killing was dependent on Fc and FcgammaR interaction since ADDC activity was not seen with F(ab')(2) fragments. ADCC activity was primarily mediated by CD14(+) monocytes with FcgammaRIIa (CD32a) as the major receptor responsible for monocyte-mediated ADCC in response to bovine IgG. In conclusion, we demonstrate that bovine anti-HIV colostrum IgG have robust HIV-1-specific ADCC activity and therefore offer a useful source of antibodies able to provide a rapid and potent response against HIV-1 infection. This could assist the development of novel Ab-mediated approaches for prevention of HIV-1 transmission.
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