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The importance of astrocytes as a reservoir of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain remains elusive.
By combining immunohistochemistry, laser capture microdissection, and triple-nested Alu-PCR, we demonstrate integrated HIV-1 in astrocytes and macrophages isolated directly from autopsy brain tissues of HIV-1-infected subjects.
The ability of HIV-1 to integrate in terminally differentiated astrocytes suggests a permanent reservoir of provirus in brain that will impact the development and likely success of strategies aimed at eradicating HIV-1.