Publications & Reports

Constrained use of CCR5 on CD4+ lymphocytes by R5X4 HIV-1: efficiency of Env-CCR5 interactions and low CCR5 expression determine a range of restricted CCR5-mediated entry.

Loftin LM, Kienzle MF, Yi Y, Lee B, Lee FH, Gray L, Gorry PR, Collman RG
Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.


R5X4 HIV-1 has impaired utilization of CCR5 on primary CD4+ lymphocytes but the mechanisms responsible are not well defined.

Using a panel of diverse R5X4 Envs we identified a spectrum of CCR5 use on CD4+ lymphocytes.

Greater lymphocyte CCR5 use correlated with relative resistance to CCR5 mAbs and small molecule antagonists.

Increasing CCR5 expression on lymphocytes increased the proportion of entry mediated by CCR5 for all R5X4 isolates except 89.6.

In cell lines with regulated CCR5 expression, strains with greater lymphocyte CCR5 use better exploited limiting levels of CCR5. Introduction of an R306S mutation in the 89.6 V3 domain enhanced its utilization of CCR5 at low levels and switched its preference to CCR5 for lymphocyte entry.

Thus, the degree to which R5X4 HIV-1 use primary lymphocyte CCR5 is determined by low CCR5 expression coupled with variations in the efficiency of Env-CCR5 interactions, which is in part governed by V3 sequences.


  • Journal: Virology
  • Published: 20/06/2010
  • Volume: 402
  • Issue: 1
  • Pagination: 135-148

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